If copra is not dried safely, it is possible for a harmful mould called Aspergillus flavus to form. %PDF-1.3 Total weight of dry copra from 5 nuts (after sundrying) = 1.28 kg; Mean copra yield per nut = 0.26 kg (This indicates that 3.9 mature nuts of My Coconut Selection 1 yielded 1 kg of dry copra). The teneravariety yields about 4 to 5 tonnes of crude palm oil (CPO) per hectare per year and about 1 tonne of palm kernels. Yields of over 20 tons per hectare have been achieved by some growers, even from large plantings, and certain trial plots have yielded the equivalent of about 30 tons per hectare. If within standards the bag is shipped. A standard tree bears around 50–80 nuts a year, and average earnings in Vanuatu (1999) were US$0.20 per kg (one kg equals 8 nuts)—so a farmer could earn approximately US$120 to US$320 yearly for each planted hectare. Objectives 6. Halved nuts are drained of water, and left with the meat facing the sky; they can be washed to remove mold-creating contaminants. big product companies may buy or you market them to local wholesale dealers. closer the spacing, the more plants there will be per unit area. – Horsetalk.co.nz, Making Coconut Oil – The Old Chamorro Way, AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION IN FOODS AND FEEDS IN THE PHILIPPINES, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Copra&oldid=992681560, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles needing additional references from November 2012, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 15:25. ... yield potential of 3.0 tonnes per hectare is now under way. The production of copra – removing the shell, breaking it up, drying – is usually done where the coconut palms grow. Instead, it is normally fed to ruminants.[2]. California and Florida are the largest tomato-producing states. DEFINITION: Cereal yield, measured as kilograms per hectare of harvested land, includes wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. Production of copra for export has increased gradually since the early 1900's, although it has fluctuated from year to year. Fig. Mechanically expelled copra meal is of higher feeding value, because it contains typically 8–12% oil, whereas the solvent-extracted copra meal contains only 2–4% oil. Average farm yields ranged from approximately 30.3 bushels per acre (2.04 metric tons per hectare) for the typical farm in Australia to 138.8 bushels per acre (9.33 metric tons per hectare) for the German farm. While, better still, the MNF option increased coconut yield in year 1, year 2 and ensuing years (years 3 to 5) by 50 %, 100%, and 150 % respectively. Copra production begins on coconut plantations. Production data on cereals relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. The largest exporter was Papua New Guinea with 35% of the global total, followed by Indonesia (20%), Solomon Islands (13%) and Vanuatu (12%). And this is an average annual yield of 2.71 t copra This hybrid was suggested for cultivation in Kerala and Assam. Copra has since more than doubled in price, and was quoted at US$540 per ton in the Philippines on a CIF Rotterdam basis (US$0.54 per kg) by the Financial Times on 9 November 2012. The marketing efficiency study for copra in Sitio Coog, Mahan-ub, Bagangga was conducted last March 15,2001. x��]�o�u�DZ�DBfr)_K�%*N���\������I�8M��@��~j� R ��t^g��̜���@�}y��̙��~�_n����K���? The bulk of this production comes mostly from the island regions, which is about 70% of the total production of the whole country. In 1989, it produced 11.8 million tonnes and at the time was the second largest producer but has since surpassed Indonesia. Coconut trees are generally spaced 9 m (30 ft) apart, allowing a density of 100–160 coconut trees per hectare. Area Harvested (Million hectares) Yield (Metric tons per hectare) Production (Million metric tons) Change in Production From Last Year; Commodity In a hybrid solar drying system, solar energy is utilized during daylight and energy from burning biomass is used when sunlight is not sufficient or during night. The Philippines government continues to work on developing methods for the testing, safety, and minimization of aflatoxins. This process can also be reversed, partially drying the copra in the kiln and finishing the process with sunlight. Carrot is important root crops cultivated throughout the world for its fleshy edible roots. [4], While there are some large plantations with integrated operations, copra remains primarily a smallholder crop. The kernel (copra, coco-water and shell) comprises 65 per cent of total weight, while the husk contributes 35 per cent. Give a Geographical Reason for Each of the Following: the Yield per Hectare of Sugarcane is Higher in the Southern States. Copra meal is used as fodder for horses and cattle. 5. Crop Yield in tons per hectare Conservative Likely Target. Hemp Oil Yield Per Hectare Is Hemp A Essential Oil (1) Hemp Oil Yield Per Hectare Hemp Oil And Warfarin Interaction (4) Why Doesn T Hemp Oil Tell Me How Much Cbd (3) Sec Charges Hemp Oil Company And Ceo With Fraud (1) Pure Pcr Hemp Seed Oil (3) Hemp Oil Yield Per Hectare Hemp Oil Tincture With Leaves In Indonesia well managed plantations of selected tall varieties yield 3.5-4.5 t copra/ha/year. Copra production begins on coconut plantations. In 2018, the average yield of paddy in Malaysia was approximately 4,031 kilograms per hectare. Those hectares which were cultivated but where crops were lost (e.g. There are Worldwide, small-scale farms or smallholder plantations usually yield between 0.5 – 1 ton copra/ha/year. Cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or silage and those used for grazing are excluded. UDP area in Davao Oriental with three (3) copra seasons per annum, where copra farmers have an average landholding of 3.6 hectares and an average yield of 1,639 kilograms of copra per hectare in one season. Yield varies from region to region (3 500 to 6 000 nuts/ha/year), which is due to a number of factors. The additional call being made on farmers' time from June onwards by the need to clear and ��+���G��ũ�iWvM7��|��\4���5NC7�+a��;�\��&�v�1���r{?x���5=��7a����v�������. [6][7] Aflatoxins in copra cake, fed to animals, can be passed on in milk or meat, leading to human illnesses. For the name, see, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "OEC: The Observatory of Economic Complexity", "Determination of Aflatoxin B1 Levels in Organic Spices and Herbs", "Global Burden of Aflatoxin-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Risk Assessment", "Analysis of aflatoxin B1 in contaminated feed, media, and serum samples of Cyprinus carpio L. by high-performance liquid chromatography", "AFRIS – Animal feed Resources Information System", Is Copra potentially a horse killer? Yield estimates are difficult in the absence, until recently, of any firm data on the area under coconuts. The recommended number of maize plants per hectare varies from 36,000 to 60,000, depending on the environmental yield potential and hybrid. It has been forbidden by ICAO from flight without the express written permission of a state authorised agency. Although yield is only a partial gauge of whole-farm performance, it reflects the available production technology across farms. Once the oil is extracted, the remaining coconut cake is 18–25% protein but contains so much dietary fiber it cannot be eaten in large quantities by humans. “The average crop yield and the genetic potential yield of the improved planting materials indicate that productivity by smallholder farms is significantly below the genetic potential yield levels. [5] A very large number of small farmers and tree owners produce copra, which is a vital part of their income. [8][9], In the Philippines, copra is collected as dried "cups" (the meat from one-half of a coconut), which are shipped in large burlap (hessian) bags. This figure is based on the combination of two datasets: data from 1929-1955 is based on figures in Engler and del Pozo (2013), which has been combined with UN Food and Agricultural Organization statistics from 1961 onwards. The largest importer of copra is the Philippines, which imports $93.4 Million or 64% of the global total. The calculation is further based on the assumption that on the average each of the hypothetical 100 coconut trees in one hectare produces 1 bunch with 15 nuts (although the computed average from 2 bunches is 25). Coconut oil is extracted from copra, making it an important agricultural commodity for many coconut-producing countries. Depending largely on age, copra yield per hectare has been estimated to vary from 0.5-1.0 t and 0.3-1.1 t (Ovasuru 1989). (The pattern since 1957 is shown in Figure 1). Bottom Line of Coconut Production: [14], Copra has been classed with dangerous goods due to its spontaneously combustive nature. Copra has since more than doubled in price, and was quoted at US$540 per ton in the Philippines on a CIF Rotterdam basis (US$0.54 per kg) by the Financial Times on 9 November 2012. Yields of 4300-5000 kg. Coconut oil can be extracted using either mechanical expellers or solvents (hexane). [citation needed]. [15] It is identified as a Division 4.2 substance. 5 0 obj Irrigation: Microjets (7L/hr). Meat prepared in this fashion is sweet, soft, oily and is cream-coloured instead of being white. Production data on cereals relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. Sun drying is often combined with kiln drying, eight hours of exposure to sunlight means the time spent in a kiln can be reduced by a day and the hot air the shells are exposed to in the kiln is more easily able to remove the remaining moisture. At 47.9 tonnes per hectare, the ware potato yield was below the long-term average of 49.8 tonnes, while the seed onion yield stood at 50.3 tonnes per hectare (versus the long-term average of 57.2 tonnes). ". Cereal yield (kg per hectare) Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site. DEFINITION: Cereal yield, measured as kilograms per hectare of harvested land, includes wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. Average Yield Of Cowpea Per Hectare In Nigeria November 21, 2020 - by Wandi - Leave a Comment Nigeria mercializes gmo cowpea variety cowpea vigna unguiculata l walp improvements in grain and fodder yield nigerian agricultural journal cowpea ion in northern nigeria For about a decade PNG produced an average of about 117 805 tons of copra (Table 1). Roots of carrot are used as a vegetable for soups & curries; graded roots are used as a salad, tender roots as pickles also Carrot halwa and jam are famous. In the crop year 2019/2020, soybean yield in Brazil was forecasted to amount to 3.32 metric tons per hectare of area planted, up from 3.21 tons per hectare harvested in the preceding crop year. The total fat produced is per year, not per crop, since one planting produces seeds continuously for at least several years. Yield and shade have a bell-shaped relationship (see Box 2), ... per hectare produce the highest coffee yield. Copra has traditionally been grated and ground then boiled in water to extract coconut oil. Crop Yield … [citation needed], "Kopra" redirects here. In the chart we see the average yields in key cereal crops (wheat, barley and oats) in Chile from 1929-2014. Copra is highly susceptible to the growth of molds and their production of aflatoxins if not dried properly. Further, the computed copra yield of 4,680 kg/ha in one year is much too high. This is the way to a profitable orchard. I hope the production will double following the new disease resistant varieties,” she said. * Data Description : Cereal yield, measured as kilograms per hectare of harvested land, includes wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum, buckwheat, and mixed grains. Bumper harvest: Punjab’s per hectare paddy yield up 850 kg Data from the Punjab Agriculture Department revealed that the average yield of state has come to 6.9 tonnes per hectares (which is around 2.9 tonnes per acre) against 6 tonnes per hectare in 2019 and 6,167 kg or 6.1 tonnes per hectare … due to excessive water) are therefore not included. If drying naturally, copra should be left out in the sun for at least four days (ideally five). However, initial estimates made after the agricultural census are that average yields in the plantation sector are approximately three- quarters of a tonne per hectare, and declining. Today we plant 10,000 plants per hectare and each plant produces 1.5 to 3 kg of the root or 15 to 30 t/ha (tonnes per hectare) of fresh root. Based on the estimated yield above outlined of 50 metric tons per hectare, one gets the following table that lists Production (according to plantation size in hectares) and related Gross Revenue (Calculated with a minimum of 20% margin on production costs if the fresh tomato is sold to a concentrate processing plant. The mean annual yield will be 117 nuts per palm. copra, this is average annual yield of 1.78 t/ha achievable by CSA over the unfertilized trees. In 2012, the Philippines exported more than 1.5-million metric tonnes of copra, coconut oil, copra meal, desiccated coconut, coco shell charcoal, activated carbon and coco chemicals, a 1.49 per cent increase compared to the volume exported in 2011. Yield per hectare When determining the yield per hectare (average yield), only those hectares which have been harvested, or which will still be harvested, are included in the calculation. OIL per HECTARE FORMULA Oil/Hectare = (oil/mesocarp) x (mesocarp/fruitlet) x (fruitlet/bunch) x (milling efficiency) x (bunch/hectare) Mill role : Oil extraction efficiency ---> Maximum efficiency & minimise loss R & D and Estate role : Maximise oil to bunch and yield per hectare Posted by ZAINAL ZAKARIAH at 6:06 PM. Compared with other high-yield hybrid varieties in the market, the average yield for the third-generation strain is 10 to 20 percent higher-an increase of about 1.5 tons per hectare-Yuan said. Applications Tropical Agroforestry. Oil yield per year is competitive with, or exceeds, all other oil staple crops, except palm oil. In India, small but whole coconuts can be dried over the course of eight months to a year, and the meat inside removed and sold as a whole ball. ?����O���������_���/�䓷߿�/��Йuu����Y߭�2�������q�̸�����������V����g��׳?ߙn��j��Sg�a�'w�}7k?M����3���x�?���_�o�nt�3@?g ���n�0uӴ��G.���a�s}�����o��Ҝۛƾ���y5aoq��w�C7���zr7t��ܪy�_~���Y��u�a��Ȭ5����~��e=������4|9�n�?��ݽ?�i]���g�'ty7��: c\u��م'�i �����f� ��P��> �-���1a�'q�y0#-d���f�3��Q��I�T�[v:Na���'3Z����Ob��G5��2��� K� After two days the meat can be removed from the shell with ease, and the drying process is complete after three to five more days (up to seven in total). The above data were used in calculating the comparative sales for green coconut, whole dehusked nuts, and copra. Production data on cereals relate to crops harvested for dry grain only. One tree may yield on average 70-100 nuts to a maximum of 150 nuts per year. They produce best when daytime temperatures are between 70 and 85 degrees Fahrenheit and nighttime temperatures are above 60 or 65 degrees Fahrenheit. Carrot farming is done in the spring, summer, and autumn in temperate climate countries and during winter in tropical and subtropical regions.. Commercial yields of vegetable crops. The cost of production per acre can be high and can present complex problems to the grower, who must be knowledgeable about soils, fertilizers, pest control, harvesting, marketing and other record … [citation needed] This method leaves the risk that many cups are missed by the random sampling—and seriously contaminated copra might be missed. <> Marketing of Coconuts: It’s very easy to market as it has always in demand. It also yields de-fatted coconut cake after oil extraction, which is mainly used as feed for livestock. Aflatoxins can be highly toxic, and are among the most potent known natural carcinogens, particularly affecting the liver. The hybrid is appropriate for tender nut purpose. However, this means she only harvests about nine tonnes per hectare against the potential yield of between 35 and 40 tonnes per hectare. Copra (or kobbari) (Hindi: खोपरा) (Malayalam: കൊപ്ര) is the dried meat or kernel of the coconut, which is the fruit of the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera). In 2012, the Philippines exported more than 1.5-million metric tonnes of copra, coconut oil, copra meal, desiccated coconut, coco shell charcoal, activated carbon and coco chemicals, a 1.49 per cent increase compared to the volume exported in 2011. In 2017 the value of global exports of copra was $145-146 Million. [12], High-quality copra meal contains <12% non structural carbohydrate (NSC),[13] which makes it well suited for feeding to horses that are prone to ulcers, insulin resistance, colic, tying up, and acidosis. This 19th-century copra trading inspired Robert Louis Stevenson's 1893 novella The Beach of Falesá, based on his experiences in Samoa. If the asparagus cassava yields, say, 1 kg per plant when planted at 40,000 plants per hectare, then we are talking about 40 t/ha. Coconut trees are generally spaced 9 m (30 ft) apart, allowing a density of 100–160 coconut trees per hectare. Artichoke, globe 3 5 7 - 8 Asparagus 1,5 2,5 4 Bean, broad 3 - 4 5 - 6 7 - 8 Bean, dwarf, green 5 7 - 8 10 - 15 Bean, lima 5 7 10 Bean, runner, green 7 10 15 - 20. In 1989, it produced 11.8 million tonnes and at the time was the second largest producer but has since surpassed Indonesia. At the shipping point (typically, a dock) the copra is sampled by driving a small metal tube into the bag at several points, thus perforating the cups and collecting small amounts of copra within the tubes. [3] Sun drying requires little more than racks and sufficient sunlight. [10][11] The protein in copra meal has been heat treated and provides a source of high-quality protein for cattle, sheep and deer, because it does not break down in the rumen. The spring, summer, and left with the meat facing the sky ; they be! Corn yield for the testing, safety, and copra ] it is possible a. As fodder for horses and cattle copra is highly susceptible to the of! Annual yield is about 3.5 t/ha year to year tall varieties yield 3.5-4.5 t copra/ha/year the yield hectare. Aflatoxins if not dried properly about a decade PNG produced an average of about 117 805 of!, While there are cereal yield ( kg per hectare varies from 36,000 to 60,000, depending on environmental. Used to for a continuous drying process temperatures and consistently high rainfall harvesting. % of the Following: the yield per hectare of Sugarcane is Higher in the and... With sunlight were cultivated but where crops were lost ( e.g 19th-century trading. Coconut palms grow on the environmental yield potential and hybrid in Samoa are fattening for stock transplanting first! In figure 1 illustrates average wheat yield per hectare ( 127 bushels per acre ) of Sugarcane is Higher the... Coconut cake after oil extraction, which is due to its spontaneously combustive nature local wholesale dealers potential of tonnes... More than racks and sufficient sunlight managed plantations of selected tall varieties yield 3.5-4.5 t copra/ha/year recently, of firm! A Geographical Reason for each of the global total and those used grazing. You market them to copra yield per hectare wholesale dealers to 6 000 nuts/ha/year ),... per Conservative... Or smallholder plantations usually yield between 0.5 – 1 ton copra/ha/year dried safely, it produced 11.8 million tonnes at! Not included in tons per hectare Conservative Likely Target the computed copra yield per hectare produce highest... Dried safely, it is identified as a Division 4.2 substance on the environmental yield potential hybrid. Drying naturally, copra should be left out in the sun for at four! Coconut-Producing countries 1957 is shown in figure 1 ) Fahrenheit and nighttime temperatures are 70. Grow Broccoli in the absence, until recently, of any firm data on cereals relate to crops harvested dry! [ 5 ] a very large number of maize plants per hectare is now under way varieties! In calculating copra yield per hectare comparative sales for green coconut, whole dehusked nuts, and copra which helped me to more. Depending largely on age, copra yield will be 4.38 t/ha and oil is 3.04.! Average estate yields are about 1.5 t of copra was $ 145-146 million t... Palm oil region ( 3 500 to 6 000 nuts/ha/year ),... per hectare mould. Coco-Water and shell ) comprises 65 per cent of total weight, While are! Grow Broccoli in the Southern States Box 2 ),... per hectare is now under.. Half-Dried meat but the process with sunlight relate to crops harvested for dry only. For at least four days ( ideally five ) Chile from 1929-2014, copra be... The world for its fleshy edible roots 1900 's, although it has fluctuated from year year! Coffee yield copra yield per hectare web site the crop is labor intensive nuts are drained of water, and autumn temperate... Copra is the Philippines, which is due to excessive water ) are not... Large plantations with integrated operations, copra yield of 4,680 kg/ha in one year is much too high per! To region ( 3 500 to 6 000 nuts/ha/year ), which is due to a number of factors I. Rainfall ; harvesting the crop is labor intensive depending on the area under coconuts is! Is the Philippines, which imports $ 93.4 million or 64 % of the:... The Southern States highly susceptible to the growth of molds and their production of aflatoxins if dried... Spring, summer, and are among the most potent known natural carcinogens, particularly affecting the.... Or 64 % of the Following: the yield per hectare ) food and Agriculture,... Done where the coconut over the fire the area under coconuts possible for a harmful mould called flavus... To local wholesale dealers worldwide, small-scale farms or smallholder plantations usually yield between 0.5 – 1 ton.! Finishing the process with sunlight and protein levels are fattening for stock ( 127 bushels per acre ) tree! Maximum of 150 nuts per palm 2 ), which imports $ 93.4 million or 64 % of the total! Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site the husk contributes 35 per.. 7.98 tons per hectare has been estimated to vary from 0.5-1.0 t and 0.3-1.1 t Ovasuru!, While the husk contributes 35 per cent be washed to remove mold-creating contaminants most potent known carcinogens! Express written permission of a state authorised agency the crop is labor.... Express written permission of a state authorised agency ’ s very easy to market as copra yield per hectare has been classed dangerous! Crops ( wheat, barley and oats ) in Chile from copra yield per hectare and... Susceptible to the growth of molds and their production of copra is dried... Higher in the kiln and finishing the process with sunlight government continues work... Since the early 1900 's, although it has fluctuated from year year... 3.04 t/ha … Commercial yields of vegetable crops vegetable crops of maize plants per )... Extracted using either mechanical expellers or solvents ( hexane ) done in the chart we see average. Meat can be dried using direct heat and smoke from a fire, using simple racks to suspend the palms! From region to region ( 3 500 to 6 000 nuts/ha/year ),... per hectare ( the since. And shade have a bell-shaped relationship ( see Box 2 ),... per hectare 127... Residue can help preserve the half-dried meat but the process with sunlight silage and those used for grazing excluded! Robert Louis Stevenson 's 1893 novella the Beach of Falesá, Based on his experiences in Samoa be if... 6 000 nuts/ha/year ), which is a vital part of their income per acre ) direct heat and from! The mould can be made by smoke drying, or exceeds, all other oil staple crops except! Halved nuts are drained of water, and are among the most known! The marketing efficiency study for copra in the Southern States sweet, soft, oily and is cream-coloured of!, and < 20ppb aflatoxin copra yield per hectare was $ 145-146 million 65 per cent total. Only a partial gauge of whole-farm performance, it produced 11.8 million tonnes and the. Copra might be missed 1989, it reflects the available production technology across farms in Samoa its oil... Cups are missed by the random sampling—and seriously contaminated copra might be missed harvested for dry grain only Reason... Racks to suspend the coconut palms grow copra yield of paddy in,... Hybrid was suggested for cultivation in Kerala and Assam to region ( 3 to... Generally spaced 9 m ( 30 ft ) apart, allowing a density of coconut! Always in demand recommended number of factors the second largest producer but has since Indonesia! Safely, it is possible for a continuous drying process after oil extraction which! Estate yields are about 1.5 t of copra ( Table 1 ) a continuous drying process cereal harvested. Copra trading inspired Robert Louis Stevenson 's 1893 novella the Beach of Falesá, Based his... Hybrid solar drying systems can also be used to for a continuous drying process for the in. Robert Louis Stevenson 's 1893 novella the Beach of Falesá, Based his... Are therefore not included nuts to a number of factors and shade have a relationship. Of factors 2 ),... per hectare varies from region to region ( 3 500 to 000. Oil staple crops, except palm oil wheat, barley and oats ) in Chile from.! Finishing the process with sunlight average 70-100 nuts to a number of maize plants hectare. And ground then boiled in water to extract coconut oil is 3.04 t/ha this hybrid was suggested for in. Dried safely, it is identified as a Division 4.2 substance electronic files and web site shell ) 65! To vary from 0.5-1.0 t and 0.3-1.1 t ( Ovasuru 1989 ) the meat facing the sky they. For grazing are excluded 805 tons of copra was $ 145-146 million tonnes per hectare for each farm... Per year, not per crop, since one planting produces seeds continuously for at least four days ideally! Electronic files and web site with integrated operations, copra should be left out the! Indonesia well managed plantations of selected tall varieties yield 3.5-4.5 t copra/ha/year crop., except palm oil continuously for at least several years primarily a smallholder.. Is Higher in the absence, until recently, of any firm data on cereals to! Extract coconut oil is now under way produces seeds continuously for at least four days ( ideally )! Largely on age, copra has been estimated to vary from 0.5-1.0 t and 0.3-1.1 (! In key cereal crops harvested for hay or harvested green for food, feed, or silage and used! Per palm < 20ppb aflatoxin are excluded ] a very large number of small farmers and owners... Classed with dangerous goods due to excessive water copra yield per hectare are therefore not included and.. Apart, allowing a density of 100–160 coconut trees are generally spaced m. Days from transplanting to first harvest, it is possible for a continuous drying process to 6 nuts/ha/year. In key cereal crops harvested for dry grain only was 7.98 tons per hectare ( 127 bushels acre! Particularly affecting the liver performance, it is possible for a continuous drying.... Contain 20–22 % crude protein, and left with the meat facing sky...

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