BJ BJ Reid . M Swetnam Raffa Spruce beetle. Hebertson Klepzig Because changes in climate will not be uniformly distributed across years, and not all temperature-dependent processes will be equally affected, a mechanistic understanding is imperative for making predictions of direct effects of climate change on future population trends. Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. ME BJ JF Billings Contact: Kevin Potter, Economic impacts of insect outbreaks triggered by climate change. ; Powell, J. Scientists continue to monitor mountain pine beetle phenology and temperatures in high elevation forests in western US. Yeaman The higher temperature thresholds serve to synchronize individuals during autumn, as temperatures decrease, and also prevent development to the cold-intolerant pupal life stage (Logan and Bentz 1999). J Rebertus Population irruptions of phytophagous insects—disturbance events important to forest ecosystem functioning—are also directly sensitive to climate change components (Dale et al. With continued changes in climate, many tree species will be exposed to conditions that are potentially less suitable for optimal growth, thereby making them more susceptible to bark beetle attacks. Is global warming real? Field 2008). The geographic distribution of the beetle generally reflects the range of its primary hosts (table 1), although the range of lodgepole pine extends further to the north and ponderosa and other pine species further to the south than where mountain pine beetles are currently found. Direct temperature control also maintains appropriate seasonality in bark beetles (sensuDanks 1987). VR Despite uncertainty in forecasts of future climate parameters that have been downscaled to a forest landscape, predictions of trends in bark beetle population success as a function of the direct effects of temperature will be instrumental in development and application of strategies for management of future forests. Campbell Once a host is selected, colonization requires overcoming constitutive and inducible tree defenses, which include anatomical, physical, and chemical components (Franceschi et al. During this same period, low temperature survival would have been high in coastal regions and other low-elevation forests across the current range, although quite low in high-elevation areas of the United States and Canadian Rocky Mountains (figures 2d, 3d). Easterling Across pine habitats in the central and eastern United States, adaptive seasonality remains low throughout the century. ; Meyer, C.W. 1991). In the past decade, widespread mountain pine beetle outbreaks in British Columbia and the northern and central US Rocky Mountains have been severe and long lasting, affecting more than 25 million ha (USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Protection, and Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service). B.; Fettig, C. J.; Page, W. G.; Bentz, B. J. Logan GA Bark beetles kill their host trees through mass attacks, a process that requires synchronized adult emergence. The spruce beetle and mountain pine beetle models (described below) are driven by hourly temperature (interpolated between the minimum and maximum temperatures on successive days) and were integrated with weather and topography using BioSIM (http://cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/factsheets/biosim). McDowell, N.; Pockman, W. T.; Allen, C. D.; Breshears, D. D.; Cobb, N.; Kolb, T.; Plaut, J.; Sperry, J.; West, A.; Williams, D. G.; Yepez, E. A. . Mechanisms of plant survival and mortality during drought: Why do some plants survive while others succumb to drought? Forest Ecology and Management 269:52-59. JH The recent loss of entire stands of long-lived, high-elevation whitebark pine, Pinus albicaulis Engelm., as a result of the mountain pine beetle (figure 4) underscores the need for greater understanding of climate change effects on complex interactions important to ecosystem resiliency and stability. De Volder Veblen The mountain pine beetle ranges throughout southern British Columbia, portions of eastern Alberta, and most of the western United States. DE AG LK ... a species of Bark beetle called pine beetle has devastated over 18 million hectares of forest in the last 30 years in the U.S. and Canada. Mountain pine beetle outbreak populations are currently restricted to pine forests in the western United States, central British Columbia and west-central Alberta. Barbara J. Bentz, Anna Maria Jönsson, in Bark Beetles, 2015. That was when I first heard of the The success of bark beetle populations will also be influenced indirectly by the effects of climate on community associates and host-tree vigor, although little information is available to quantify these relationships. C Werner SA . K . Bentz DW Because of differences in temperature-dependent life-history strategies, including cold-induced mortality and developmental timing, responses to warming will differ among and within bark beetle species. MJ Stephens Host-tree distribution. A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests. Reboletti BioScience 58(6):501-518. . Bentz 2007). 2013. Although little is known about specific temperature-dependent developmental processes of many bark beetle species, research suggests that at least two predominant strategies, diapause and direct temperature control, have evolved to maintain appropriate life-cycle timing. J Response was a shock. It is clear, however, that these types of management strategies are only efficacious prior to the onset of an outbreak. Battistia Potential impacts of climate change on the distribution of North American trees, US national climate change assessment on forest ecosystems: An introduction, Climate change and forests of the future: Managing in the face of uncertainty, Environmental change and carbon limitation in trees: A biochemical, ecophysiological and ecosystem appraisal, Cold-hardiness of adult and larval spruce beetles, Evaluation of the hydrological cycle over the Mississippi River basin as simulated by the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM), Risk Assessment of the Threat of Mountain Pine Beetle to Canada's Boreal and Eastern Pine Forests, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service. ; Bracewell, R. B.; Mock, K. E.; Pfrender, M. E. 2011. 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